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Home Environmental Internal combustion engine with new kinematic scheme (Sakharnov engine)

Internal combustion engine with new kinematic scheme (Sakharnov engine)


Sakharnov axial-piston engine (SAPE) with a new kinematic scheme for conversion of reciprocal movement of pistons into rotational movement of a main shaft was developed and proposed by a leading designer of the E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute.

Engine of the SAPE type is a push-pull four-cylinder axial-piston diesel engine with water cooling and uniflow scavenging of cylinders, the axis of which is parallel to the axis of the main shaft. The key difference of this type of the engines from available internal combustion engines with a connecting rod gear kinematic scheme is that the reciprocal movement of two pistons moving in one cylinder in opposite directions is converted into the rotational movement of the main shaft using two skewed washers put on the straight shaft, instead of two crankshafts connected through a power transmission gear.

Utilization of the proposed new kinematic scheme and axial positioning of cylinders around the main shaft axis in design of the internal combustion engine make it possible to preserve all advantages of the push-pull engines with uniflow scavenging, and eliminate their drawbacks.

High performance of the new kinematic scheme and advantages of axial positioning of the cylinders were proved by tests of a working mockup of the SAPE engine.

Innovative Aspect and Main Advantages

High performance of the proposed new kinematic scheme of conversion of reciprocal movement of pistons into rotational movement using two skewed washers put on the straight shaft was confirmed on the engine mockup, for which Ukraine Patent No. 22541 and Russia Patent No. 2125162 were granted, and international examination validated by the PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty, Geneva) priority certification was conducted.

The main advantages of the proposed SAPE type engine include:

  1. The best thermodynamic process - increased indicated efficiency provided by uniflow scavenging of cylinders, much longer section time, much higher temperature of fuel combustion (due to the absence of head of the cylinder block and valve actuating gear), and lower removal of heat by a cooling fluid (less quantity of parts to be cooled), this allowing reduction of specific fuel consumption to 155-165 g/hp·h.
  2. Increased mechanical efficiency – improved reliability, lower wear and longer service life, which are provided by the following factors:
    • there are almost no forces of friction of pistons on the cylinder walls because of axial positioning of the cylinders around the main shaft axis (axis of the connecting rod deviates from the cylinder axis to an angle of 1.5o – 2o, compared to 18o – 20o with the connecting rod gear kinematic scheme);
    • most friction pairs are installed on rolling bearings, including on the main shaft;
    • shorter stroke in heads of connecting rods;
    • smaller quantity of idle rotations, lower linear and angular speeds (push-pull process);
    • cylinder block is free from the forces of gases pressing on the piston, which allows the compression ratio to be increased to 22-25, and makes it possible to manufacture most parts, including cylinder blocks, from light alloys, of smaller dimensions and lower weight (the latter has always limited the application of diesel engines);
    • axial positioning of cylinders makes it possible to substantially decrease dimensions and weight of the engine, simplify the manufacture technology and reduce costs;
    • SAPE engines are environmentally friendly, i.e. their specific fuel consumption is 155-165 g/hp*h. Compared with carburetor engines, emitted combustion products in SAPE engines do not contain CO, and content of carcinogenic benzopyrine is 15 times as low.

Areas of Application

The market of different-power internal combustion engines includes motor car construction, tractor building and other industries.

SAPE structure
Fig. 1 SAPE structure

SAPE mockup
Fig. 2 SAPE mockup

Specifications of SAPE engine mockup

Relative indices of SAPE engine

Stage of Development

SAPE unique designs are covered by:

  • Ukraine Patent No. 22541
  • Russia Patent No. 2125162

Contact Details

Contact persons: Vasyl Sakharnov, Mykola Koval
E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute
11 Bozhenko Street, 03680, Kyiv-150, Ukraine
Tel./fax: (38 044) 287-3188
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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