National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny, abbr: NAN Ukraine) is the highest research body in Ukraine as a self-governing state-funded organization. It is the main research institution along with the five other academies specialized in various scientific disciplines. NAS Ukraine follows all Laws of Ukraine and its statute and consists of numerous departments, sections, research institutes, scientific centers and various other supporting scientific organizations. The Academy reports on the annual basis to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
The presidium of the academy is located at the following address vulytsia Volodymyrska, 57, across the street from the Building of Pedagogical Museum where used to preside the Central Council during the independence period of 1917-18.
The initiative to create such an institution came from the Ukrainian Science Society in April of 1917 soon after the February Revolution. However it was finally materialized during the time of the Ukrainian State, when on the proposal of the Minister of Education and Arts Mykola Vasylenko a special commission was formed, which from July 9 - September 17, 1918 composed a legal document for the creation of the Academy. That document was approved by the Council of Ministers and signed by the Hetman of Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadsky on November 14, 1918. At this point it was called the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS).
According to its original statute the Academy consisted of three research departments in history and philology, physics and mathematics, as well as social studies. All publishing of academy was to be printed in the Ukrainian language. Its statute emphasized the all-Ukrainian nature: the members could be not only citizens of the Ukrainian State, but also the Ukrainian scientists of the West Ukraine (at that time citizens of Austria-Hungary). Foreigners could become academicians as well, but on the resolution of the 2/3 of the active members' composition.
The presidium and its first academicians (three to each department) appointed the government, while the future members were elected by those academicians (active members). The first academicians were appointed historians academician Dmytro Bahaliy and Orest Levytsky, economists Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky and V.Kosynsky, eastern studies Ahathanhel Krymsky and Mykola Petrov, linguist Stepan Smal-Stotsky, goelogists academician Volodymyr Vernadsky and Pavlo Tutkovsky, biologist Mykola Kashchenko, mechanic Stepan Tymoshenko, law studies Fedir Taranovsky. For the President of the Academy, the Hetman of Ukraine invited Mykhailo Hrushevsky, but he declined. The Constituent Assembly that took place on November 27, 1918 elected the President academician Volodymyr Vernadsky, while the permanent secretary became Ahathanhel Krymsky.
The government of Ukraine provided funding to create research departments, institutes, and others. In its first year the Academy consisted of three departments within three institutes, 15 commissions, and the National Library.
Like many other academies, it has a two-tier membership: academicians, and corresponding members. There is also an additional membership category for foreign members. It operates many research institutions, primarily in the fundamental sciences but also in the humanities. The Academy has "state-agency" status, but is self-governing in decisions relating to its own activities. The NASU is responsible for over 90% of all discoveries made in Ukraine, including the transmutation of lithium into helium, the production of heavy water, and the development of a 3-D radar that operates in the decimeter range.